τὸ γὰρ τί ἦν εἶναι τῷ εἴδει καὶ τῇ ἐνεργείᾳ ὑπάρχει. ψυχὴ μὲν γὰρ καὶ ψυχῇ εἶναι ταὐτόν, ἀνθρώπῳ δὲ καὶ ἄνθρωπος οὐ ταὐτόν, εἰ μὴ καὶ ἡ ψυχὴ ἄνθρωπος λεχθήσεται: οὕτω δὲ τινὶ μὲν τινὶ δ' οὔ.
δὴ ζητοῦσιν ἡ συλλαβὴ ἐκ τῶν στοιχείων οὖσα καὶ συνθέσεως, οὐδ' ἡ οἰκία πλίνθοι τε καὶ σύνθεσις. καὶ τοῦτο ὀρθῶς: οὐ γάρ ἐστιν ἡ σύνθεσις οὐδ' ἡ μῖξις ἐκ τούτων ὧν ἐστὶ σύνθεσις ἢ μῖξις. ὁμοίως δὲ οὐδὲ τῶν ἄλλων οὐθέν, οἷον εἰ ὁ οὐδὸς θέσει, οὐκ ἐκ τοῦ οὐδοῦ ἡ θέσις ἀλλὰ μᾶλλον
οὗτος ἐξ ἐκείνης. οὐδὲ δὴ ὁ ἄνθρωπός ἐστι τὸ ζῷον καὶ δίπουν, ἀλλά τι δεῖ εἶναι ὃ παρὰ ταῦτά ἐστιν, εἰ ταῦθ' ὕλη, οὔτε δὲ στοιχεῖον οὔτ' ἐκ στοιχείου, ἀλλ' ἡ οὐσία: ὃ ἐξαιροῦντες
τὴν ὕλην λέγουσιν. εἰ οὖν τοῦτ' αἴτιον τοῦ εἶναι, καὶ οὐσία τοῦτο, αὐτὴν ἂν τὴν οὐσίαν οὐ λέγοιεν. (ἀνάγκη δὴ ταύτην ἢ
ἀΐδιον εἶναι ἢ φθαρτὴν ἄνευ τοῦ φθείρεσθαι καὶ γεγονέναι ἄνευ τοῦ γίγνεσθαι. δέδεικται δὲ καὶ δεδήλωται ἐν ἄλλοις ὅτι τὸ εἶδος οὐθεὶς ποιεῖ οὐδὲ γεννᾷ, ἀλλὰ ποιεῖται τόδε, γίγνεται δὲ τὸ ἐκ τούτων. εἰ δ' εἰσὶ τῶν φθαρτῶν αἱ οὐσίαι χωρισταί, οὐδέν πω δῆλον: πλὴν ὅτι γ' ἐνίων οὐκ ἐνδέχεται
δῆλον, ὅσα μὴ οἷόν τε παρὰ τὰ τινὰ εἶναι, οἷον οἰκίαν ἢ σκεῦος. ἴσως μὲν οὖν οὐδ' οὐσίαι εἰσὶν οὔτ' αὐτὰ ταῦτα οὔτε τι τῶν ἄλλων ὅσα μὴ φύσει συνέστηκεν: τὴν γὰρ φύσιν μόνην ἄν τις θείη τὴν ἐν τοῖς φθαρτοῖς οὐσίαν.) ὥστε ἡ ἀπορία ἣν οἱ Ἀντισθένειοι καὶ οἱ οὕτως ἀπαίδευτοι ἠπόρουν
ἔχει τινὰ καιρόν, ὅτι οὐκ ἔστι τὸ τί ἔστιν ὁρίσασθαι (τὸν γὰρ ὅρον λόγον εἶναι μακρόν), ἀλλὰ ποῖον μέν τί ἐστιν ἐνδέχεται καὶ διδάξαι, ὥσπερ ἄργυρον, τί μέν ἐστιν οὔ, ὅτι δ' οἷον καττίτερος: ὥστ' οὐσίας ἔστι μὲν ἧς ἐνδέχεται εἶναι ὅρον καὶ λόγον, οἷον τῆς συνθέτου, ἐάν τε αἰσθητὴ
ἐάν τε νοητὴ ᾖ: ἐξ ὧν δ' αὕτη πρώτων, οὐκέτι, εἴπερ τὶ κατὰ τινὸς σημαίνει ὁ λόγος ὁ ὁριστικὸς καὶ δεῖ τὸ μὲν ὥσπερ ὕλην εἶναι τὸ δὲ ὡς μορφήν.
φανερὸν δὲ καὶ διότι, εἴπερ εἰσί πως ἀριθμοὶ αἱ οὐσίαι, οὕτως εἰσὶ καὶ οὐχ ὥς τινες λέγουσι μονάδων: ὅ τε γὰρ ὁρισμὸς ἀριθμός τις:
διαιρετός τε γὰρ καὶ εἰς ἀδιαίρετα (οὐ γὰρ ἄπειροι οἱ λόγοἰ, καὶ ὁ ἀριθμὸς δὲ τοιοῦτον. καὶ ὥσπερ οὐδ' ἀπ' ἀριθμοῦ ἀφαιρεθέντος τινὸς ἢ προστεθέντος ἐξ ὧν ὁ ἀριθμός ἐστιν, οὐκέτι ὁ αὐτὸς ἀριθμός ἐστιν ἀλλ' ἕτερος, κἂν τοὐλάχιστον ἀφαιρεθῇ ἢ προστεθῇ,
because the essence belongs to the form and the
and essence of soul are the same, but man and essence of man are not,
unless the soul is also to be called man; and although this is so in
one sense, it is not so in another.
appears, then, upon inquiry into the matter,
that a syllable is not derived from the phonetic
elements plus combination, nor is a house bricks plus combination. And
this is true; for the combination or mixture is not derived from the
things of which it is a combination or mixture,
nor, similarly, is any other of the
"differences." E.g., if the threshold is defined by its position, the
position is not derived from the threshold, but rather vice versa.
Nor, indeed, is man "animal"
must be something which exists besides these, if they are matter; but
it is neither an element nor derived from an element, but the
substance; and those who offer the definition given above are omitting
this and describing the matter.
If, then, this something else is the cause of
a man's being, and this is his substance, they will not be stating his
Now the substance must
be either eternal or perishable without ever being in process of
perishing, and generated without ever being in process of generation.
It has been clearly demonstrated elsewhere
that no one generates or creates the form; it
is the individual thing that is created, and the compound that is
whether the substances of perishable things are separable or not is
not yet at all clear
it is clear that this is impossible in some cases,
i.e. in the case of all things which
cannot exist apart from the particular instances; e.g. house or
neither these things themselves, nor anything else which is not
naturally composed, are substances; for their nature is the only
substance which one can assume in the case of perishable
difficulty which perplexed the followers of Antisthenes
and others similarly unlearned has a
certain application; I mean the difficulty that it is impossible to
a thing is (for the definition, they say, is
a lengthy formula), but it
possible actually to teach
others what a thing
; e.g., we cannot say
silver is, but we can say that it is like
Hence there can
be definition and formula of one kind of substance, i.e. the
composite, whether it is sensible or intelligible; but not of its
primary constituents, since the defining formula denotes something
predicated of something, and this must be partly of the nature of
matter and partly of the nature of form.
It is also obvious
that, if numbers are in any sense substances, they are such in this
sense, and not, as some
describe them, aggregates
of units. For (a) the definition is a kind of number, since it is
divisible, and divisible into indivisible parts (for formulae are not
infinite); and number is of this nature.
And (b) just as when any element which
composes the number is subtracted or added, it is no longer the same
number but a different one, however small the subtraction or addition